As per reports published on ANI

A new study published in the Journal of Cell by Scientists at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden has revealed that gut microbiota, which is the complex community of microorganisms that exist in the digestive tracts of humans, has the ability to impact the functioning of cells in the way they respond to insulin and can thus contribute to type 2 diabetes.

The study showed that the gut microbiota of people with treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes can be linked to a different metabolism of the amino acid histidine, which is mainly derived from the diet.

In recent years, the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of health conditions. However, only a few studies investigated whether an altered gut microbiota can directly affect a disease.

This, in turn, it leads to the formation of imidazole propionate, which is a substance that impairs the cells’ ability to respond to insulin.

Thus a new way to treat patients with type 2 diabetes can be by reducing the amount of bacterial-produced imidazole propionate.

This substance does not cause all type 2 diabetes but our working hypothesis is that there are subpopulations of patients who might benefit from changing their diet or altering their gut microbiota to reduce the levels of imidazole propionate,” says Fredrik Backhed, Professor of Molecular Medicine with a research focus on the role of gut microbiota in metabolism.

The latest study also includes the analysis of various substances in the blood vessel that goes from the intestine to the liver. The researchers then identified an elevated concentration of the substance imidazole propionate in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Using fecal samples, it was also possible to show that the microbiota of people with type 2 diabetes produced imidazole propionate when histidine was added. This mechanism was not found in the diabetes-free subjects.

According to the report, the study comprised of five patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 diabetes-free control subjects. The findings were then confirmed in a larger study involving 649 people.

The scientists also found that the molecule affected a signaling pathway previously linked to metabolic-related diseases by directly activating a specific protein, p38gamma. These findings provided answers to questions about the nature of the underlying mechanisms. These, according to Backhed, often remain unanswered in studies of how gut bacteria are associated with, for example, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

“Our findings show clearly how important the interaction between gut microbiota and diet is to understand our metabolism in health and disease. The result also shows that gut bacteria from different individuals can lead to the production of completely different substances that may have very specific effects on the body,” concluded Backhed.

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